Practical information Egypt

The civilization of Ancient Egypt, whose origins date back to ancient times (3,000 years BC), is still admired by travelers who have chosen to go up the majestic and languorous course of its mythical river: the Nile. 

Already at the time of the Romans, visitors to Egypt were filled with admiration for the archaeological remains bequeathed by a civilization that was more than 2000 years old.

With its temples, its tombs, its immense sculptures, its sarcophagi and its crocodiles without forgetting its illustrious figures (Ramses II, Tutankhamun, Cleopatra or Alexander the Great), Egypt lives for eternity, the imagination of those who discover.

But beyond the organized cruises and the pyramids are also a generous and welcoming people. Yes, besides its spellbinding treasures and monuments, Egypt is an often mysterious blend of East and West, beauty, new and old.

By going through our guide, we invite the reader to discover what makes the very essence of this country with a thousand facets. We will also discuss the history of the country, its geography, its culture and the most beautiful trips that allow you to contemplate and visit it. Let's embark together, there, at the foot of the pyramids of Giza or in the gigantic city of Cairo for a wonder that history whispers to us...

And the story began with the birth of writing!

It was in 1798 that the scholars and scientists of the Egyptian campaign cast off in Alexandria. Then, they will then discover unsuspected wonders of the Pharaonic Egyptian civilization. 

Wandering from one site to another. First of all, they endeavor to copy the mysterious writings painted or engraved on the temples and on the tombs. The jubilation is there, but what can all these symbols mean? Everyone has the dream of being the one who will discover the secret. But the competition is fierce. Scientists and linguists rush to obtain the best documents, the most explicit copies or even papyri in good condition... An exceptional person who devoted his entire existence to this task will succeed: Jean-François Champollion, born in 1790 and died in 1832…

Important dates in the history of Egypt

Historians have identified 8 major periods and 30 dynasties in the history of ancient Egypt.

  1. The Thinite period: 3100 to 2675 BC. AD It brings together the first and the second dynasty
  2. The Old Kingdom. It is between 2675 and 2200 BCE. This period includes the Third and Fourth Dynasties.
  3. The First Intermediate Period. It extends from 2200 to 2046 BC. JC And concerns the sixth until the eleventh dynasty.
  4. The Middle Kingdom. This period is between 2046 and 1710 BC. AD And incorporates the end of the Eleventh Dynasty and the Thirteenth Dynasty.
  5. The Second Intermediate Period which goes from 1710 to 1543 BC. AD It unites the thirteenth to the eighteenth dynasty.
  6. The New Kingdom Period. It spans from 1543 to 1070 BC. AD Historians have included the Eighteenth Dynasty through the Twentieth. 
  7. The Third Intermediate Period is between 1070 and 664 BC. J.-C: Dynasties 21 to 25 are grouped there.
  8. Late Period. It goes from 664 to 332 BC Dynasties 27 to 30 compose it.

The great history of Egypt

It was for nearly six centuries that Egypt would shine and make its neighbors jealous. Thutmose III, Seti Ier, Amenophis III, Akhenaten, Hatshepsout, Tutankhamun, Ramses II… the New Kingdom is not lacking in famous figures. Whereas, with its kings who willingly practice the art of war, Egypt creates for itself an immense empire which extends from the fourth cataract of the Nile in Nubia to the north in Syria. 

The tribes, (the contribution of the losers), as well as the prisoners disembark. Refinement is key. To realize this, just take a look at the buried treasure that the young pharaoh Tutankhamun buried in the graves of dignitaries. 

Egypt is at the height of its power. Thebes. The religious capital is full of riches and brings together the Valley of the Queens and the Valley of the Kings. Karnak, becomes the largest temple of the empire… The cities of Pi-Ramses and Memphis, located in the Nile Delta, not far from Avaris of the Hyksôs, are also radiant.

In fact, the pharaohs truly devoted fortunes to the construction of temples: cattle, precious stones, gold, the gods deserve the finest riches... To serve and honor them, staff work in the temples. All of this is very expensive, too expensive above all. 

But rulers rely on the Empire to pay the bill. And inevitably. The day they lose control and management of a large part of their land, the crisis arrives!. Finally, an unmanageable political and economic crisis that swept away the New Empire.

Thus, from 525 BC, a much less glorious history of Egypt began, marked in particular by Alexander the Great and Queen Cleopatra.

Geography of Egypt: The important points

At first glance, the people of Egypt do not seem to be very spoiled by the geography of their territory. In fact, a space which is equivalent to twice the French territory…but a living area limited to too little land. Consequently, a hot and arid climate, a blazing sun for most of the year, although a Nile which has fierce whims. 

In addition, behind this table, many assets exist. And especially the Egyptians since Antiquity have learned to exploit the best of what they are. And the least we can say is that they do it very well!

Sand for the horizon

Not discouraged by a territory invaded by dunes and sand, men choose to appropriate it. And above all, they go proof of an extraordinary adaptation.

Mountainous or flat, Egypt is above all a desert.

Confined to the delta and the valley of the Nile. While Egypt is limited to the west by the Libyan desert. On the other hand, this desert composed of vast plateaus and also of the great sand sea. In fact, it is the third largest sand space in the world. It is 600 kilometers long in its North-South crossing and 250 to 400 kilometers wide on its West-East section.

Here, living creatures are not legion. Indeed, neither animal nor plant. Simply, the breath of the wind god Shou. On the other hand, in this vast desert, five oases. They are like islands of greenery: Kharga, Bahariah, Farafrah, Dakhla, and Siwa. The furthest from the banks of the Nile. Underground water reserves bring lush life here.

While on its eastern part, the Nile valley is limited by the Arabian desert and its long chain of mountains which flow into the Red Sea. To the far north, a wide strip of land connects it with the triangle of the Sinai Peninsula. Point of connection between Egypt and the Asian continent. In fact the territory of Sinai offers a gateway to Palestine and Syria. As well as military and commercial expeditions.

 Since its construction in 1869. Egypt is like cut by the Suez Canal connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean basin. So, with its arid and dry mountains. The Sinai is no different from the Arabian Desert. In addition, his greatest pride ultimately comes down to dominating the entire territory of Egypt from the top of its 2,638 meters of altitude with Mount Saint Catherine. 

The sand forms, so to speak, a concrete shelter that is very difficult to cross. All the more, the desert confers on the Egyptian ground natural protections of great quality that only the nomadic tribes accustomed to the sand desert can venture without danger into Egyptian territory.